Research funded by CPO’s Modeling, Analysis, Prediction, and Projections (MAPP) program was published in the latest issue of the Journal of Climate.
The paper "A Framework for Dynamical Seasonal Prediction of Precipitation over the Pacific Islands," adopted a three-step approach to develop a framework for dynamical seasonal prediction of precipitation over the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) .
First, guided by the climatological features of basic variables, the researchers proposed a view that climates of the USAPI are connected by large-scale phenomena involving the warm pool, South Pacific convergence zone, tropical monsoons, and subtropical anticyclone. Secondly, they evaluated prediction skill in ensemble hindcasts performed with the Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), with the hypothesis that ENSO is the leading candidate for large and persisting precipitation departures. Third, moist static energy budget diagnostics are performed to identify physical processes responsible for precipitation anomalies.
The paper found that at leads of 0–6 months, CFSv2 demonstrates useful skill in predicting Niño-3.4 SST and equatorial Pacific precipitation anomalies. During El Niño, positive precipitation anomalies along the central (eastern) equatorial Pacific are anchored by net radiative flux (Frad) and moist advection (evaporation and Frad). The model’s skill in predicting precipitation anomalies over South Pacific (Hawaiian) islands is highest (lowest). Over the west Pacific islands, the skill is low during the rainy season. During El Niño, skill over the USAPI, in particular predicting dryness persistence at long leads is useful. Suppressed precipitation over the Hawaiian and South Pacific (west Pacific) islands are determined by anomalous dry and cold air advection (reduced evaporation and Frad). These processes are local, but are dictated by circulation anomalies forced by ENSO. Model budget estimates are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from reanalysis, boosting confidence for societal benefits. However, observational constraints, as well as budget residuals, pose limitations.
To view the full paper, visit: http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu
Americans’ health, security and economic wellbeing are tied to climate and weather. Every day, we see communities grappling with environmental challenges due to unusual or extreme events related to climate and weather. In 2011, the United States experienced a record high number (14) of climate- and weather-related disasters where overall costs reached or exceeded $1 billion. Combined, these events claimed 670 lives, caused more than 6,000 injuries, and cost $55 billion in damages. Businesses, policy leaders, resource managers and citizens are increasingly asking for information to help them address such challenges.
Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Department of Commerce
Climate Program Office
1315 East-West Hwy, Suite 1100 Silver Spring, MD 20910
Copyright 2018 by NOAA
NOAA Privacy Statement|
Web Accessibility Statement|
Disclaimer for External Links|
U.S. Department of Commerce|